the risks surrounding a business or investment. In a Monte Carlo simulation, these revenues and costs could have random numbers assigned to them: A computer could generate 20-digit random numbers such as98125602386617556398. Step2: Evaluate the tree from right to left carrying out these two actions: (a) Calculate an EV at each outcome point. Comparing contribution figures, the product should be bought in and re-badged: Step 2: Calculate the sensitivity (to the external purchase price). Test your understanding 2 - Applying maximax. The time and costs involved in their construction can be more than is gained from the improved decisions. In risk you can predict the possibility of a future outcome, while in uncertainty you cannot. A complex problem is brokendown into smaller, easier to handle sections. The number of students starting the programme is dependent on economic conditions: If the programme is advertised and economic conditions are poor,there is a 65% chance that the advertising will stimulate further demandand student numbers will increase to 50. In many literature the word “risk” defines as Following up from the pay-off table example, Geoffrey Ramsbottom's table looks as follows : How many salads should we decide to supply if the minimax regret rule is applied? Risk refers to the situation where probabilities can be assigned to a range of expected outcomes arising from an investment project and the likelihood of each outcome occurring can therefore be quantified. Knight argues that the second individual is exposed to risk but that the first suffers from ignorance. through the use of cameras withinsupermarkets to examine how long customers spend on reading thenutritional information on food packaging. Uncertainty: there are a number of possible outcomes but the probability of each outcome is not known. A great deal of information is freely available in this area from sources such as government ministries, the nationalised industries, universities and organisations such as the OECD. exposed to the risk. Draw a decision tree to represent your problem. known as an insurer or an insurance company. EV ('Drill') = ($190K x 0.1) + (-$10K x 0.9) so EV ('Drill') = $10K. For indifference, the contribution from outsourcing needs to fallto $5 per unit. Under conditions of certainty, accurate, measurable, and reliable information on which to base decisions is available. Chapter 3 – Decision-Making under conditions of Risk and Uncertainty Expected monetary value (EMV) criterion. diversification minimizes the risk from any one investment. ... Notes are saved with you account but can also be exported as plain text, MS Word, PDF, Google Doc, or Evernote. Subject: Managerial Economics. At the first (and only) decision point in our tree, we shouldchoose the option to advertise as EV ('D') is $82,000 and EV ('C) is$75,000. Possible outcomes are easy to identify (e.g. The random numbers generated give 5 possibleoutcomes in our example: A business is choosing between two projects, project A and projectB. Their cost and logistical complexity is frequently cited as a barrier, especially for smaller companies. There is a 60% chance that economic conditions will be poor. Economic intelligence can be defined as information relating to the economic environment within which a company operates. For example, if the target population is 55% women and 45% men, then a sample of 200 people could be structured so 110 women and 90 men are asked, rather than simply asking 200 people and leaving it up to chance whether or not the gender mix is typical. Author: Saral Notes. Test your understanding 3 - Applying maximin. A square is used to represent a decision point (i.e. Using maximax, an optimist would consider the best possible outcomefor each product and pick the product with the greatest potential. A key Adverse selection is the tendency of those in dangerous jobs or high- risk lifestyle However, if the business would prefer to minimise its exposure torisk, it would take on project A. It’s the prospect that a From the perspective of an investment project, risk She can tellyou whether the prospects are good or poor, but she is not a perfectpredictor. The EV may not correspond to any of the actual possible outcomes. A new ordering system is being considered, whereby customers mustorder their salad online the day before.  You can assign a probability to risks events, while with uncertainty you can’t. By using this technique it is possible to establish which estimates(variables) are more critical than others in affecting a decision. The more variable these outcomes are the greater the risk. For example, someone with insurance against automobile theft may be less vigilant Well, this article might help you in understanding the difference between risk and uncertainty, take a read. Basically, when unsure, there is risk of the results being different than our expectations. measures the uncertainty that an investor is willing to take to realise a gain from an investment. If this exceeds $10,000, the geologist would be worth employing as long as the benefit of employing her exceeds her charge of $7,000. ACC 408 NOTES DECISION MAKING UNDER CONDITIONS OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY RISK AND UNCERTAINTY An example of a risky situation is one in which we can say that there is an 80% probability that returns from a project will be in excess of $200,000 but a 20% probability that returns will be less than $200,000. If conditions are poor it is expected that the programme will attract 40 students without advertising. It is often used in capital investment appraisal. It assumes that changes to variables can be made independently, e.g. All probabilities should add up to '1'. Some of the more common techniques in motivational research are: Measurement research – the objective here is to build on the motivation research by trying to quantify the issues involved. If there is oil, the probability that she will say there aregood prospects is 95%. Taking two quick stops at Webster’s, 2 we find the following:. free samples in a shop. We can now construct a pay-off table as follows: When probabilities are not available, there are still tools available for incorporating uncertainty into decision making. If the project is chosen, those areas can be carefully monitored. Contents: 1. Decision trees should be used where a problem involves a series ofdecisions being made and several outcomes arise during thedecision-making process. Using maximax, which product would be chosen? Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to: Risk is the variability of possible returns. Risk, Uncertainty, and the Precautionary Principle 2. Risk management is important in a business. An event without uncertainty in the outcome is not a risk, and uncertainty without an event produces no outcome, so again there is no risk. If the external purchase price rose bymore than 17% the original decision would be reversed. Itsstaff has asked you to help them decide how many salads it should supplyfor each day of the forthcoming year. risk and uncertainty lecture 2 1. risk and uncertainty by syed muhammad ijaz, fca dated august 03, 2007 2. F.H., 1921, Risk, Uncertainty and Profit, New York Hart, Schaffner and Marx. For example, about the likely responses of customers to newproducts, new advertising campaigns and price changes. A decision tree is a diagrammatic representation of amulti-decision problem, where all possible courses of action arerepresented, and every possible outcome of each course of action isshown. After reading this article you will learn about Decision-Making under Certainty, Risk and Uncertainty. In many questions the decision makers receive a forecast of afuture outcome (for example a market research group may predict theforthcoming demand for a product). Therefore, the contributionper salad is $2. Best estimates for variables are made and a decision arrived at. In addition to the research techniques discussed, the following methods can be used to address risk or uncertainty. – ex. NOTES was published in Risk, Choice, and Uncertainty on page 215. Uncertainty is a lack of complete certainty. 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